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Petroleum English: petroleum, from Latin petrus - rock, and oleum - oil), nicknamed as well as black gold, is a viscous liquid, dark brown, or greenish flammable, which is in the upper layers of the few areas in the Earth's crust , Petroleum consists of a complex mixture of various hydrocarbons, largely of the alkane series, but vary in appearance, composition and purity.
Petroleum is taken from oil wells in the mines of oil. Location of oil wells is obtained after going through the process of geological studies.
oil will be processed at the oil refinery and separated the results based on their boiling points so as to produce a wide range of fuels, ranging from gasoline and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents needed to make plastics and medicines used to produce earth. Various oil items and materials required by the people.
If seen rude, crude oil contains only crude oil, but in daily use was also used in the form of hydrocarbon solids, liquids, and other gases. At standard temperature and pressure conditions, light hydrocarbons such as methane, ethane, propane, and butane gaseous boils at -161.6 ° C, -88.6 ° C, -42 ° C and -0.5 ° C, respectively (- 258.9 °, -127.5 °, -43.6 ° and + 31.1 ° F), whereas carbon is higher, ranging from pentane to top form solids or liquids. Even so, in the underground oil resources, the proportion of gases, liquids, and solids depending on surface conditions and the phase diagram of the petroleum mixture.
The percentage of light hydrocarbons in crude oil varies depending on the oil fields, the content can be up to maximum 97% of the gross weight and the minimum is 50%.
Types of hydrocarbons found in petroleum are mostly composed of alkanes, cycloalkanes, and various types of aromatic hydrocarbons, coupled with a fraction other elements such as nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur, plus some metals such as iron, nickel, copper, and vanadium , The amount of the molecular composition vary greatly from one oil to another oil but the percentage proportion of chemical elements can be seen below
The element composition by weight
The element composition by weight
Element range of percentage
- Carbon 83 to 87%
- Hydrogen 10 to 14%
- Nitrogen 0.1 to 2%
- Oxygen 0.05 to 1.5%
- sulfur 0.05 to 6.0%
- Metal <0.1%
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Fraction of Oil
Hydrocarbons, particularly paraffinic and aromatic compounds, has a boiling trajectory respectively, where the hydrocarbon chain length is proportional to the boiling point and density. The more long-chain hydrocarbons boiling and then stretch the greater density. The number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain varies. To be used as fuel then grouped into several factions or levels with a simple sequence as follows:
The range of carbon chain: C1 to C5
Route Boiling: 0 to 50 ° C
2. Gasoline (Petrol)
The range of carbon chain: C6 to C11
Route Boiling: 50 to 85 ° C
3. Kerosene (Petroleum)
The range of carbon chain: C12 to C20
Route Boiling: 85 to 105 ° C
The range of carbon chain: C21 to C30
Route Boiling: 105 to 15 ° C
5. Heavy Oil
The range of the carbon chain from C31 to C40
Route boiling range of 130 to 300 ° C
The range of carbon chains above C40
Route boiling above 300 ° C
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The usefulness of fractions Petroleum
Uses: Gas tubes, BBG, petrochemical process feed.
2. Gasoline (Petrol)
Uses: Fuel engine, piston-powered aviation fuel, petrochemical process feed
3. Kerosene (Petroleum)
Usefulness: the motor fuel, aviation fuel jet engines, household fuel, industrial fuel, bait petrochemical processes
Uses: fuel motors, fuel industry
5. Heavy Oil
Uses: Lubricating oils, waxes, petrochemical process feed
Uses: fuel boilers (steam generators), asphalt, leak-proof coating materials.
The octane number is a number that indicates how much pressure can be given before the fuel ignites spontaneously. Inside the engine, air and fuel mixture (in the form of gas) is pressed by the piston up to a very small volume and then ignited by sparks produced by spark plugs. Because of the magnitude of this pressure, air and fuel mixture also can burn spontaneously before the spark from the spark plug out. If the gas mixture is burned because of the high pressure (and not because a spark from the spark plug), there will be knocking or knock in the engine. This will cause engine knocking easily damaged, so far as possible, we must avoid.
The name is derived from octane octane (C8), because of all the molecules making up the gasoline, octane which has the most good compression properties. Octane can be compressed to a small volume without experiencing spontaneous combustion, as was the case in heptane, for example, which can catch fire spontaneously though just pressed a little.
Some of the octane number of fuel:
- 87 ? standard gasoline in the United States
- 88 ? Gasoline unleaded Premium
- 91 ? Gasoline standard in Europe, PERTAMAX
- 92 ? Gasoline standard in Taiwan
- 91 ? PERTAMAX
- 95 ? Pertamax Plus
Octane number can be increased by adding a gasoline additive. Adding tetraethyl lead (TEL, Pb (C2H5) 4) on gasoline would increase the octane number of gasoline, so gasoline "cheap" can be used and safe for the machine by adding this lead. To change the shape of Pb from solid to gas on gasoline containing TEL required ethylene bromide (C2H5Br). Unfortunately, a thin layer of lead is formed in the atmosphere and harm organisms, including humans. In developed countries, lead has been banned for use as a gasoline blend.
Other additives are often blended into gasoline is MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether, C5H11O), which originated and is made from ethanol. Pure MTBE octane similar numbered 118. In addition to increasing the octane number, MTBE can also add oxygen to the gas mixture inside the engine, thus reducing the incomplete combustion of gasoline that produces CO gas. Later revealed that MTBE is also harmful to the environment because it has the properties karsinogenik and easily mixed with water, so that if there is a leak in shelters gasoline (eg at petrol stations) MTBE enter the groundwater can contaminate wells and other sources of drinking water more.
123 octane ethanol numerical also be used as a mixture. Ethanol superior TEL and MTBE because it does not pollute the air with lead. In addition, ethanol is derived from fermented plants, so raw materials for manufacture is relatively abundant. Ethanol is increasingly being used as a component of fuel after the price of oil is increasing.
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Benefits of Petroleum
1. Natural Gas
Gas from the distillation of the fuel used for the purposes of domestic or factory. • Fossil fuel is a gas mainly consisting of methane (CH4).
Gasoline is a liquid mixture derived from petroleum and is mostly composed of hydrocarbons. Gasoline is widely used as a fuel for motor vehicles such as motorcycles. Some types of gasoline are known in Indonesia include: 1.Premium, production Pertamina, which has a 87 octane 2.Pertamax, production Pertamina, which has a 92 octane 3.Pertamax Plus, its oil production which has 4.Pertamax 95. Octane Racing, production Pertamina have octane 100. Specifically for the needs of car racing.
Naphtha is a material that has a boiling point between gasoline and kerosene are used for: - dry cleaning solvents (washers) - Solvent rubber - ethylene starting material - known as a jet fuel JP-4
Kerosene is used as: - Kerosene - fuel known as water jet plane - fuel motors motors that use kerosene as fuel are: 1. The tools of agriculture (tractors). 2. The fishing vessel. 3. Aircraft small electric lighting.
5. Solar and diesel
Solar is a petroleum fraction with a boiling point between 270- 350 ° C. Diesel oil used as fuel for diesel engines in motor vehicles such as buses, trucks, trains and tractors. • Solar and diesel used as - In motor fuel, diesel large type (such as Bus & Truck) - Producing steam - Melt the results of industry - Burning rocks - Working the hot metal
Lubricants are chemical substances, which are generally liquid, which is applied between two moving objects to reduce frictional forces. • Lubricants serves as a protective layer that separates the two surfaces that connected. Lubricants generally consist of 90% of base oils and 10% additives. One of the most major use of lubricant is an engine oil that is used in engine in. The usefulness of such lubricating oil to prevent rust and reduce friction
Used for lighting, layered wrapping paper, wax batik, lighters, and polishing materials like shoe polish.
8. Bitumen (Asphalt)
Asphalt is hydro carbon material that is attached to brownish-black, water-resistant. Asphalt is often called bitumen. Asphalt or bitumen is a viscous liquid which is hydrocarbons, contains little sulfur, oxygen, and chlorine. Asphalt as a binder in flexible pavement has viscoelastic properties. Asphalt will be solid at room temperature and is liquid when heated. Asphalt is a material that is chemically very complex and not yet well characterized. The main content of asphalt is carbon compounds saturated and unsaturated aliphatic and aromatic having up to 150 carbon atoms per molecule. Usefulness of asphalt is to coat the surface of the road.
Positive Impact Use of petroleum
The positive impact of the use of the earth so obviously just dong as fuel. Because the only source of energy that is necessary and can be explored on a large scale is petroleum. Petroleum can be processed into LNG and LPG, gasoline, kerosene, asphalt, etc.
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Negative Impact of Oil
1. Air pollution
Air pollution fall in air quality due to the use of wastes from petroleum.
2. Produce Form of CO2
Climate change Use of petroleum will produce waste products in the form of CO2¬. The gas can cause the greenhouse effect on Earth that there was global warming that are now happening. Global warming is exactly what is fueling climate change in various country.
Exploitation of water on earth using tankers, not closing the possibility of a leak in the oil tanker. Because the tanker was leaking, then the crude oil that is in them will come out and fall keair causing water pollution.
4. Acid Rain
rain water is contaminated SOX and NOX into rain containing H2SO4 and HNO3 so the pH to about 3. normal rains have acidity of about 5.6. This will result in acid rain became infertile soil since losing three nutrients. Waters affected by acid rain into the waters off or does not produce fish. SOX source gas from the combustion of coal to produce hydrocarbon gases (such as methane) for raw materials ammonia. Whereas NOX gas derived from nitric acid-producing industry for the manufacture of ammonium nitrate fertilizer.
5. Sea water contaminated by metals
Heavy metals from industrial waste petrochemicals. Fsiik properties of water include temperature, color, turbidity, salinity (salt content), acidity (pH), and suspended solids load. All these physical properties is one of the environmental factors that can affect the physical and chemical properties of water. If the petrochemical industrial waste containing heavy metals such as Pb, Hg, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cd and Mn in high concentrations (1,3- 7 ppm), then marine ecosystems polluted and many fish - fish that accumulate heavy metals (standard 0.5 ppm Hg in fish). If the polluted seawater is used for irrigation purposes in the urban and rural groundwater that serves for everyday household use will be contaminated by heavy metals. Heavy metals originating from industrial waste pertokimia can also pollute the soil. Heavy metal that is Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn and Ni. Actually soil containing heavy metals in very small amounts (called micro-nutrients) derived from minerals in soil parent material and derived from organic materials. If heavy metals are removed in large concentrations into the soil, it will cause the plants that grow above ground will be heavy metal poisoning.
6. Air pollution
Caused by the petrochemical industry, can also cause lung cancer. The case was never investigated in Taiwan causing death in women due to lung cancer - lung from 1990 - 1994. Data on deaths from lung cancer, obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statisctic Taiwan Health Department. From the research that has been conducted, statistically significant level obtained probability <0.05 (95% confidence level). This shows that the effect of air pollution as a result of the activities of the petrochemical industry is indeed cause lung cancer - lung in women. The proportion of samples taken from the total population of the city of Taiwan who worked in the petrochemical industry, in this case women.
Caused due to the sound of the engine - power generators, pumps, compressors, etc. that require great energy. If the noise threshold value has been exceeded, it will cause health problems in workers or the local population. Even harass animals that live around the project. Since 1979 in Germany to do research on the noise generated by the petrochemical industry and oil refining. From the results obtained, it was very disturbing noise problem of the factory employees work and the data obtained is used to estimate 1991.
From these studies by a distance that is ideal for a stay of sound noise is 1.500 m from the source noise in terms this is the petrochemical industry. (Case in North Rhine, Germany). In addition, the propagation of noise is influenced by a number of physical factors that resulted in the forwarding and noise reduction. Among others are meteorology, temperature, and the characteristics of the soil surface that absorbs or transmits the sounds.